Mequindox Good Quality 148-01-6 Veterinary Mequindox
|FOB Price:||US $1 / kg|
|Min. Order:||25 kg|
|Min. Order||FOB Price|
|25 kg||US $1/ kg|
|Payment Terms:||L/C, T/T, Western Union, Paypal, Money Gram, Bitcoin|
- Model NO.: 148-01-6
- Component: Animal
- Pharmacodynamic Influential Factors: Animal Species
- Veterinary Reg. No.: Dahua
- Storage: Avoid Light, Closed Tight
- Transport Package: According to Customer′s Requirements
- Origin: China
- Varieties: Growth Promoting Medicine
- Type: The First Class
- Storage Method: Moisture Proof
- Packing No.: 36.5*H47cm
- Trademark: Dahua
- Specification: USP/BP, EP
- HS Code: 29350090
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Product Name Mequindox
CAS NO 148-01-6
Appearance White powder
1.Mequindox, a quinoxaline-N-dioxide derivative that possesses antibacterial properties, has been widely used as a feed additive in the stockbreeding industry in China. While recent pharmacological studies have uncovered potential hazardous effects of mequindox, exactly how mequindox induces pathological changes and the cellular responses associated with its consumption remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the cellular responses associated with mequindox treatment.
2.We report here that mequindox inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, this mequindox-associated deleterious effect on cell proliferation was observed in human, pig as well as chicken cells, suggesting that mequindox acts on evolutionarily conserved target(s). To further understand the mequindox-host interaction and the mechanism underlying mequindox-induced cell cycle arrest, we measured the cellular content of DNA damage, which is known to perturb cell proliferation and compromise cell survival.
3.Accordingly, using γ-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DNA damage, we found that mequindox treatment induced cellular DNA damage, which paralleled the chemical-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase partially alleviated these mequindox-associated effects. Taken together, our results suggest that mequindox cytotoxicity is attributable, in part, to its role as a potent inducer of DNA damage via ROS.
1.Mequindox is used as an antibiotic drug in livestock; however, its toxicity remains largely unclear. Previously, we investigated metabolic responses of mice to mequindox exposure. In order to evaluate dependences of animal species in response to mequindox insult, we present the metabolic consequences of mequindox exposure in a rat model, by employing the combination of metabonomics and transcriptomics.
2.Metabolic profiling of urine revealed that metabolic recovery is achieved for rats exposed to a low or moderate dose of mequindox, whereas high levels of mequindox exposure trigger liver dysfunction, causing no such recovery. We found that mequindox exposure causes suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and stimulation of glycolysis, which is in contrast to a mouse model previously investigated. In addition, mequindox dosage induces promotion of β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was confirmed by elevated expressions of acox1, hsd17b2, and cpt1a in liver.
3.Furthermore, altered levels of N-methylnicotinate, 1-methylnicotinamide, and glutathione disulfide highlighted the promotion of vitamin B3 antioxidative cycle in rats exposed to mequindox. Moreover, mequindox exposure altered levels of gut microbiotal related co-metabolites, suggesting a perturbation of the gut microflora of the host. Our work provides a comprehensive view of the toxicological effects of mequindox, which is important in the usage of mequindox in animal and human food safety.
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